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Information @ a Glance

General

  • The term xylene refers to a group of three benzene derivatives which are used as a solvent and in the printing, rubber, and leather industries. Xylene is a colorless, sweet-smelling liquid that is very flammable.
  • The three forms of xylene in which the methyl groups vary on the benzene ring: meta-xylene, ortho-xylene, and para-xylene (m-, o-, and p-xylene). These different forms are referred to as isomers.
  • Xylenes are flammable liquids and fire hazards. When heated to decomposition, xylenes emit acrid smoke and fumes.

Process

  • The effect of H2 on isomerization pathways and on the acid site density onWOx-ZrO2 catalysts was explored using kinetic measurements of acid-catalyzed o-xylene isomerization reactions.
  • The Badger/Niro Para-xylene Crystallization process recovers high-purity para-xylene from aromatic streams.
  • PX-PlusTM process, which selectively disproportionates toluene to para-xylene and benzene.
  • HySorbTM process, which involves adsorptive concentration of para-xylene.
  • Peroxide and formaldehyde modifications are presented in improved indophenol-xylene extraction method which minimize the interference due to reduced tin and iron, sulfite, and reductones.

Application

  • Xylene is used as a solvent, to manufacture gasoline, as a raw material for the production of organic chemicals used to make polyester fibers, and to make dyes and insecticides.
  • Other uses are in sterilizing catgut and in microscopy.
  • p-Xylene, the most important commercial isomer, is primarily converted for use in fibers, films, or resins, including polyester fibers which are used for household fabrics, carpets, and clothing.
  • Xylene has been used as a polymerization solvent for acrylic resins and as a reflux solvent in the manufacturing alkyd and polyester resins.
  • Xylene has been traditionally used as a clearing agent in tissue processing for many years, primarily because it is miscible with both alcohol and wax while doing an excellent job of clearing the tissue of alcohol

Technology

  • The isomeric concentrations of meta, ortho, and para xylene are important to quantify for the production of many polymer compounds. Raman spectroscopy technique presents the fastest and easiest method of making this determination.
  • PVA-fixed fecal material which was previously examined by the standard technique and found to contain the protozoans indicated below was selected to evaluate Hemo-De as a xylene substitute in the trichrome staining technique

Market

  • Due to its downstream demand, the para-xylene market is robust and generally sees steady year-on-year demand growth in the range of 6-8% per year.
  • Worldwide para-xylene production capacity exceeded the demand by more than 4.5 million metric tons per annum (MMTA), lowering the average capacity utilization to less than 80%.
  • All producers have captive supplies of mixed xylenes. Large quantities of unisolated o-xylene in mixed xylene streams are used in gasoline or isomerized to p-xylene.

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