a common hair care product used for the removal of oils, dirt, skin
particles, dandruff, environmental pollutants and other contaminant
particles that gradually build up in hair.
is to remove the unwanted build-up without stripping out so much as to make
hair unmanageable. Shampoo, when lathered with water, is a surfactant,
which, while cleaning the hair and scalp, can remove the natural oils
(sebum) which lubricate the hair shaft.
shampoos are highly formulated products based on a limited range of
cosmetically acceptable surface active agents, plus conditioning agents,
pearling agents, antimicrobials, colours and fragrance.
are typically viscous liquids, either clear or opaque (pearlised),
containing 20–40% solids, adjusted to approximately pH 5.5. Most, but not
all, have viscosities in the ratio of 500–1500 centipoise.
are manufactured by simple blending in a stirred vessel, sometimes equipped
with low pressure steam heating coils. Vessels are typically constructed
from stainless steel, although glass-lined vessels are still used in some
Ingredients are weighed or metered incrementally into the mixing vessel,
with thorough mixing between each addition. A moderate amount of heat is
used to reduce the viscosity and so facilitate ease of mixing.
pearlising agents are waxy solids at ambient temperature and require melting
in a drum oven or similar before use. Demineralised water is most commonly
used in order to minimise contamination of the product.
processing is required after blending, and the product may be packed off
directly from the mixing vessel.
has transformed shampoos from simple soaps to complex chemical products
employing deposition technology that allows agents within the shampoo to
perform independently at different stages. Formulators have reengineered
ingredients to consist of smaller particles, allowing for better coverage, a
lighter-feeling shampoo and higher ingredient concentrations to provide
coacervate-aided deposition technology, the coacervate can trap other active
ingredients and deposit them onto the hair. This allows for the addition of
ingredients to shampoos and conditioners, such as pyrithione zinc,
pro-vitamin B5, amino acids or botanicals.
market with high potential, the shampoo market in India is dominated by just
a few players. From scores of brands five years ago, the shampoo market has
now been whittled down to a handful. Hindustan Lever (HLL), with a 65 per
cent volume share (68 per cent share by value), dominates the market with
brands such as Sunsilk, Clinic Plus and Clinic All Clear. Cavin Kare
Limited, an unlisted company from Chennai, with brands such as Chik and Nyle
follows with a 19.8 per cent volume share.
have also tried other routes to expand the shampoo market. Fighting the
perception that shampoos are essentially glamour products, marketers have
tried to add a utility value to shampoos by offering functional benefits.
Anti-dandruff shampoos represent this attempt. Clinic Plus, one of the first
anti-dandruff brands, is the largest shampoo brand today, with a market
share of 31 per cent.
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