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Heterocyclic compounds are organic compounds that contain a ring
structure containing atoms in addition to carbon, such as
sulfur, oxygen or nitrogen, as part of the ring.
Heterocycles with three atoms in the ring are more reactive
because of ring strain. Those containing one heteroatom are, in
general, stable. Those with two heteroatoms are more likely to
occur as reactive intermediates.
heterocycles have important pharmaceutical properties.
- Oxiranes (epoxides)
are the most commonly encountered three-membered heterocycles.
Heterocyclic compounds are of fundamental importance to
biological processes and are wide spread as natural products.
Preparation of heterocyclic compounds was performed in two
steps: condensation and/or alkylation, which were conducted
according to two alternative microwave procedures, without
solvent or with small amount of polar, ecological friendly
solvent e.g. ethanol.
of dimethyl acetylene dicarboxylate (DMAD) with esters and
amides of dithiocarboxylic acids are well known methods for
preparation of five membered S, and S,Nheterocycles.
application of microwave irradiation in organic synthesis for
conducting reactions at highly accelerated rates is an emerging
reaction of N-(2-cyanophenyl)benzimidoyl chloride with reagents
containing a thioamide moiety, i.e. thioacetamide,
benzylthiourea, symmetrical dialkyl- and diarylthioureas gave
different cyclic products: 3,1-benzothiazine, 1,3,5-
benzotriazocine and quinazoline.
heterocyclic compounds play an important role in the
characterization of citrus oils controlling both their quality
heterocyclic amines (HCAs) found in cooked meat are known
Synthetically produced heterocycles designed by organic chemists
are used for instance as agrochemicals and pharmaceuticals and
play an important role in human life.
Heterocyclic compounds offer a high degree of structural
diversity and have proven to be broadly and economically useful
as therapeutic agents.
synthesis of the 3-carbethoxycoumarin heterocycle involves a
transesterification followed by an aldol condensation reaction
starting with salicylaldehyde and diethyl malonate.
Nitro-carbon heterocyclic structures are found in various
therapeutic agents, including numerous antihistamines, as well
as antiseptic, antiarrythmic, antirheumatic, antibiotic and
other pharmaceutical compounds.
Hydrogenation of nitrobenzenes bearing aldehyde-containing
substituents over heterogeneous platinum or palladium catalysts
gives medium and/or large heterocyclic amines as a result of
simple or dimeric cyclisation in moderate to good yields; a
range of heteroatoms can be incorporated into the macrocycles,
enhancing their potential as ligands.