Chitosan

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General

Chitosan Chitosan is a linear polysaccharide composed of randomly distributed ß-(1-4)-linked D-glucosamine (deacetylated unit) and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (acetylated unit). It has a number of commercial and possible biomedical uses.
Chitosan Information Chitosan is a positively charged lipophilic fiber derived from shellfish. It binds to negatively charged fats during digestion and reduces their absorption.
History of Chitin Chitin is one of the most abundant polysaccharide found in nature. It is often considered a cellulose derivative, although it does not occur in organisms producing cellulose. 
Chitin, Chitosan and Derivatives Chitin and chitosan have the same chemical structure. Chitin is made up of a linear chain of acethylglucosamine groups. Chitosan is obtained by removing enough acethyl groups (CH3-CO) for the molecule to be soluble in most diluted acids.
Natural Product for the 21st Century Chitin is not exactly a household word, but most are familiar with its source. It is found naturally in the shells of crustaceans, such as crab, shrimp and lobster, as well as in the exoskeleton of marine zoo-plankton, including coral and jellyfish.
Production

Production of Two Chitosanases from a Chitosan-Assimilating Bacterium 

Chitosan, a deacetylated derivative of chitin (a linear polysaccharide consisting of b-1,4-linked N-acetylglucosamine residues), occurs only in the cell walls of fungi belonging to the order Mucorales in nature.

Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan and trimethyl-chitosan modified nanoparticles as DNA carriers.
Fungal chitosan production and its characterization

Chitosan is commercially produced from shrimp and crabshell chitin deacetylated by strong alkalis at high temperatures for long periods of time. However, supplies of raw materials are variable and seasonal and the process is laborious and costly.

Chitosan Manufacturing Process Can see the flow diagram of Chitosan Manufacturing Process.
Fish Production and Processing Estimation of marine fish production, Marine Fisheries Census, 2005, Development of river and reservoir database management module system, Status of ecology and fisheries in reservoirs of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh, Metals and pesticide contamination level in Rivers Churni, Roopnarayan, and Bhagirathi.
Functions and Properties

Structural and Functional Definition of the Human Chitinase Chitin-binding Domain

Chitin, a b-1,4-linked polymer of N-acetylglucosamine, is one of the most abundant biopolymers in nature. It serves a structural role in arthropods, including crustaceans and insects, as well as mollusks, nematodes, and worms. 

An Enzymic method for the determination of chitin and chitosan in fungal cell walls

The free and N-acetyl glucosamine contents, serving as a measure of the amounts of chitosan and chitin respectively, were determined in the chitinase hydrolysates of the cell wall of a wild strain of Neurospora crassa.

Effect of Chitosan and its Derivatives on the Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Paper Sheets

Paper fiber is held together by hydrogen bonds. These bonds affect the distance between the separate cross-linking fibers. Water molecules play an important role in the interfiber linkage. A large excess of free water, however, causes weakness of wet strength in paper sheets and paper board.

Optical Properties of Chitosan in Aqueous Solution Chitosan is a substance that has recently found many applications in industry, agriculture and medical sciences. This natural polymer is characterised by optical chirality, and the specific rotation [α]Tλ, degree of deacetylation (DD) and mean molecular weight Mv are the most important parameters describing it.
Rheological Properties of Chitosan Solutions

Rheological properties of chitosan solutions were investigated as a function of polymer concentration. The viscosity curves for chitosan solutions consisted of two distinct  viscosity regions, the Newtonian zero-shear viscosity (ho) region and the shear rate dependent apparent viscosity (happ) region. 

Mechanism of Action Chitosan is, at the pH of the gastrointestinal tract, a positively charged polymer and can bind to negatively charged substances. It is believed that chitosan, similar to cholestryamine, has bile acid sequestration activity and that this may be the mechanism for its hypocholesterolemic effect.
Fundamental Properties The fundamental properties of Chitosan are very strong antibacterial effect, total biodegradability, biocompatibility, and high humidity absorption.
Company Profiles
Hawaii Chitopure Founded in 2004, Hawaii Chitopure is a biomaterials company specializing in the US manufacture of ultra-pure chitosan for a variety of medical applications. Hawaii Chitopure is headquartered in Honolulu, HI
KitoZyme KitoZyme sa is a spin-off of the University of Liège located in Herstal, near Liège in Belgium, since it was set up in late December 2000. The company was founded to capitalise on the great potential offered by eight years of research in the field of vegetal biopolymer extraction.
NovaMatrix NovaMatrix is one of the world´s leading producers and supplier of ultra-pure, well-characterized and documented biopolymers and biomaterials for use in pharmaceutical, biotechnology and biomedical applications.
Seafresh Industry Public Company Limited We are one of Thailand's leading frozen shrimp exporters. We are not only a specialist in frozen shrimps, but also a processor of quality end-product value added prawns and shrimps with the highest technology for the world market.
Wellable Group Wellable Group is a well-known industrial enterprise in Fujian province of P.R.China. We are majoring in biochemical, aquatic food processing, dyeing & weaving and environmental protecting production.
Xianju Tengwang Chitosan Factory Xianju Tengwang Chitosan Factory is located in Xianju County, Taizhou city, which is a new booming port city in Zhejing province. Founded in 1993, Tengwang is a join-stock enterprise integrating R & D, production and trade; we specialize in the production of chitosan serial products.
HaloSource HaloSource® health science technologies focus on antimicrobial enhancing solutions that reliably and effectively kill germs. For partners that want competitive differentiation through unique proprietary technologies, HaloSource provides reliable, tested and proven solutions in the product categories of safe water, infection control and wound healing.
Maypro The Maypro management team is comprised of experts. Each division manager is respected and qualified in his or her own field. This responsive group also reflects the cultural diversity required to do international business in the expanding global market. Language is never a barrier at Maypro.
Technology
Perm Selective Chitosan Alginate Hybrid Microcapsules for Enzyme Immobilization Technology Enzymes are biological catalyst that serve different functions in the body and are also useful in different industrial processes. Being protein in nature, enzymes are generally not very stable in aqueous environments and cannot withstand changes in termperature.
Shrimp-based Bandages Save Lives Roland Piquepaille's technology trends.
Filleting and freezing of fish Filleting is carried out to separate the meat into two portions without bones and skins. This operation reduces the bulk, facilitates storage and transportation, and is very convenient for household fish preparations like fish finger, coated fish fillets etc.
BST-Gel™ Platform Technology Our patented BST-Gel™ platform technology is a chitosan-based thermosensitive gel which is liquid at room temperature, but solidifies when at body temperature (37oC).  This gives the BST-Gel™ a unique injectability that allows it to be applied in a minimally invasive manner to an unlimited number of applications in medical device and therapeutic delivery fields.
Replacing Cells to Fight Disease A promising treatment for type I diabetes is to encapsulate insulin-producing cells and transplant them into patients -- the challenge is to formulate capsules that prevent immunorejection
“Artificial” Skin from Fish Membrane A new fish derived membrane claimed to be used as an “artificial” skin for treating burns and wound and also having dental applications has been developed by the scientists in Kochi.
Wyatt Technology

Chitosan, by contrast, is deacetylated chitin, and can be obtained from shrimp or crab shells. Its applications vary from the therapeutic, such as wound healing, to cosmetics and dietary supplements.

Patent
Chitosans United states patent for Chitosan.
Chitosan Compositions United states patent for Chitosan Compositions.
Chitosan as a Contraceptive United states patent for Chitosan as a Contraceptive.
Use of Chitosan in Corrugating Medium United states patent for Use of Chitosan in Corrugating Medium.
Chitosan Optical Materials United states patent for Chitosan Optical Materials.
Process of Preparing Chitosan Particles United states patent for Process of Preparing Chitosan Particles.
Chitosan Preparation United states patent for Chitosan Preparation.
Chitosan and Method of Preparing Chitosan United states patent for Chitosan and Method of Preparing Chitosan.
Process for Preparing a Sulfonated Chitosan United states patent for Process for Preparing a Sulfonated Chitosan.
Chitosan Production United states patent for Chitosan Production.
Consultants
Susan Elizabeth Murcott

Senior Lecturer -- Massachusetts Institute of Technology , Civil and Env. Engineering Department Principal -- Ecosystems Engineering 

The Cecon Group Inc CECON is your bridge to more than 700 scientific, engineering, and technical business and marketing experts. Our inside technical professionals will help you find the specific expert you need.
Dr. H. S.Chhatpar Publication: Formulation of medium constituents by multiresponse analysis of central composite design to enhance chitinase production,  Statistical optimization of medium components for the production of chitinase by Alcaligenes Xylosoxydans.
Intota Experts in polysaccharides, hydrocolloids, biopolymers.
Dr Graham Moore Graham Moore has over twenty years experience of the paper industry, encompassing process and product knowledge, wet end chemistry, recycling, de-inking, product performance and strategic futures related research.
Chitosan.co.in We help various companies in Europe, USA and South East Asia to source Herbal, Nutraceuticals and Botanicals from India. We are working as a purchasing arm for top Nutraceuticals and herbal formulators and manufacturers in North America, Europe, Japan who do their purchasing through us in India.
Ana Paula Pêgo

Oliveira H, Moreira C, Pêgo AP, Barbosa MA. “Improving chitosan-based vectors efficiency by imidazole functionalization” The 1st Chinese-European Synposium on Biomaterials in Regenerative Medicine, Suzhou, China, April 5-8 2006 p. OR45.  

Project
Chitosan Derived Micorparticulate Systems for Nasal Delivery of Macromolecular Drugs Delivery of macromolecular drugs, such as peptides and proteins, via non invasive routes presents several challenges including low absorption through mucosal surfaces. The nasal mucosa has attracted much interest in recent years as a site for the delivery of macromolecular drugs due to its accessibility, neutral pH and avoidance of first pass effect.
Plasmochemical preparation of chitosan-based adsorbtion materials Chitosan exhibits exceptional adsorption characteristics especially for heavy metals, which are causing a serious concern in wastewater streams. Immobilization of chitosan onto low-cost substrate significantly improves its feasibility in water treatment plants.
Model Project on Chitosan Preparation Scope for chitin/chitosan production in India, export potential, important properties of chitosan, uses of chitosan, technical parameters, location of the project, Borrowers profile, Equipments required and physical and financial outlay, Margin money and bank loan, Financial viability.
New skin out of old shells Nanotechnologies and nano-sciences, knowledge-based multifunctional materials and new production processes and devices.
Regulation of Molecular Weight of Chitosan Chitosan as well as other polysaccharides irradiated with electron beam or gamma rays undergo degradation. As a result the molecular weight of these polymers is decreased, and molecular weight distribution is changed towards the most probable.
Production of Chitosans from Shrimp Shells for Applications in Plant Disease Protection Chitosan activates resistance against pathogens after exposure: Production of chitosans from shrimp shells for applications in plant disease protection
Applications
Health and Nutritional Uses of Chitosan

Chitosan is an extraordinary fat binder. Chemically speaking, Chitosan is an amino polysaccharide that has the ability to “bind” lipids in the stomach before they are absorbed through the digestive system into the bloodstream.  

Biopolymer Composite of Chitosan and Methyl Methacrylate for Medical Applications

Chitosan is a copolymer of N-acetyl glucosamine and glucosamine units and is represented as a homopolymer. It is a unique basic polysaccharide with high molecular weight. Chitosan occurs in nature in the cell walls of some fungi, insects etc. 

Bioconversion of shellfish chitin wastes for the production of Bacillus subtilis

Chitin oligosaccharides can be obtained by either chemical or enzymatic hydrolysis of chitin. In the case of chemical hydrolysis, chitin oligosaccharides were prepared by partial hydrolysis of chitin with concentrated HCl, phosphoric acid, or HF. 

Isolation and some Applications of Fungal Chitin

Fungal mycelial wastes from biotechnological plants can become free and rich alternative sources of chitin - chitosan materials, beside the traditional industrial source - shellfish waste materials. Moreover, the fungal chitosans can have unique properties compared with those derived from Crustacea.

Chitosan Applications It has been proven to be useful in promoting tissue growth in tissue repair and accelerating wound-healing and bone regeneration.
Dalwoo Chitosan Application Can see the applications of Chitosan.
Revolutionizing Weight Loss Regardless of chitosan's miraculous overview, it is a very simple substance which has been around for ages.  It is taken from chitin, a polysaccharide found in the exoskeletons of crustaceans.  It is processed by removing the shells from shellfish such as shrimp, lobster, and crabs.  The shells are then ground into a pulverous powder. 
Products
LifeExtension Chitosan Since cholesterol is normally secreted with the bile and reabsorbed in the intestine, fibers like chitosan can help remove cholesterol from inside the body. The absorbed fat and cholesterol are excreted through the bowel, improving bowel function.
Chitosan Diet Pill Diet pills such as chitosan may not be all that effective for weightloss, but there are plenty of other fat burners. But to truly succeed at losing body fat and most important of all, keeping that fat off you need a plan a program to help you succeed.
Biotrim Can see the Chitosan product Biotrim.
Chitosan Products  LipoSan Ultra® is a natural dietary supplement ingredient for effective weight management. In the digestive system, LipoSan Ultra® complexes and binds with dietary fats.
FAT Eliminator Fat Eliminator™ is the ultimate weight loss product because it blocks the absorption of both fat and sugar from the food you eat and helps suppress your appetite as well. Reducing the amount of fat and sugar absorbed from our food helps us lose weight in a natural and safe way.
Fat Blocker Chitosan Complex This proprietary Chitosan Formula includes many of the leading natural weight loss aids in one convenient capsule including CitriMax (garcinia cambogia), Chromium Picolinate and L-Carnitine.
Flocculation Chitosan This kind of chitosan is processed with special techniques and applied in water purification, juice defecation, turbidity removal of wine, sewage disposal, herbal medicine clarification and macromolecular substance recycle etc.
Featured Chitosan Product Can see the list of pure Chitosan products.
Stacker The Stacker 3 formula with Chitosan is designed for those who are in search of a powerful advanced fat burner and dynamic energizer in one. It may help create a thermogenic response and deliver a dynamic boost of energy.
Super Chitosan 450 mg Super Chitosan™ dietary supplement with Absorbitol® is intended to support normal, healthy lipid levels. In independent testing, Absorbitol bound 2.5 times more dietary fat than the average of other chitosan products on the market.
Chitosan Rx Ultra "The Fat Trapper" Chitosan binds with fat and prevents it from being absorbed in the digestive tract. Chitosan is a natural, non-digestible, (therefore has zero calories), dietary fiber that is made from shellfish. Nature's RX™ uses Vanson's LipoSan Ultra™, the finest chitosan known, in producing our product.
Fat Zapper  Can see Fat Zapper Chitosan and X'er-Size Pyruvate Diets.
Market and Report
Chitosan Microcapsules get Bioavailability Boost Encapsulating fats and fat-soluble ingredients with chitosan to protect them during processing does not affect their availability in the body, says new research that highlights the vast potential of this technique.
Primex Increases Chitosan Presence Primex, the Iceland-based marine biotech company, has strengthened its position as the world's leading producer of chitosan products through the acquisition of the bulk chitosan business of Vanson HaloSource - a move which also gives it the market leading LipoSan brand in the US.
Chitosan Complex Superior to Gum Arabic for Citrus Flavour Stabilisation A chitosan-containing complex was more effective at stabilising citrus flavours and could offer a cost-effective alternative to gum arabic, suggests joint Italian-US research.
Dissolved Air Flotation Treatment of Gulf Shrimp Cannery Wastewater

Gulf Coast shrimp fisheries are an important part of the shrimp industry of the United States. The total shrimp catch varies from year to year and government statistics show that the U. S. average for a recent five-year period was approximately 375,000,000 pounds per year. 

Frictional Behaviour of Chitosan Coated Fabrics

Friction, in general, is defined as the resistance encountered when two bodies are brought into contact and allowed to slide against each other. A great deal of work on friction has been carried out in view of its importance.  

Fisheries for the Tenth five Year Plan

The fish and shellfish industry has to be made sustainable. The health of the fish-eating population of the country should be an equally important concern of the industry. 

Development of Small Scale Fisheries

Past and present fisheries activities within the region which fall within the concept of TCDC,  Outline proposals for TCDC activities in marine and brackishwater fisheries within the Bay of Bengal region, Assessment of interest and willingness of respective governments in TCDC and their orders of priority, Funding and procedural matters relevant to TCDC.

Fisheries for the Eleventh  five Year Plan Indian status in global fisheries, Exports, Demand and supply for fish, Diversification, Capital formation and output, Capacity strengthening, Development of inland fisheries and aquaculture, Group accident insurance scheme for active fisherman, Centrally sponsored Scheme on strengthening of database and information networking for the Fisheries sector.
Annual Historical Report Production of the Hemorrhage Control (Chitosan) Dressing is dependent on materials imported from Iceland. This is because U.S. suppliers are currently unable to provide medical grade chitosan in sufficient quantity and purity. The objective of the Chitosan Bandage Component program is to establish a U.S.based chitosan production facility to support production of hemorrhage control dressings for military and civilian use.
Summary of Data for Chemical Selection

Chitosan is a cationic carbohydrate polymer derived from chitin. It has gained rapid and widespread acceptance as a diet aid. Chitosan also has many other industrial, pharmaceutical, agricultural, and cosmetic applications. A combination of these uses can result in very large daily intakes of chitosan by consumers. 

Minister announces new licences for the processing of shellfish waste Gerry Reid, Minister of Fisheries and Aquaculture, announced today that the department has issued two licences for the processing of shellfish waste. These licences were issued in response to a Request for Proposals (RFP) which was issued by the department for the processing of shellfish waste into products such as chitin or chitosan.
History of chitin and chitosan investigations in Russia The large amount of crab, shrimp waste, as well as some insects and plants (such as seaweeds) are used currently for preparation of chitin and chitosan. These natural polysaccharides have found numerous applications in food and medicine industries, biotechnological and agricultural needs, cosmetics and veterinary.
Manufacturers, Suppliers and Buyers
Egyptian Exporter Can view the Egyptian Exporter of Chitosan.
Suppliers Directory Can see the Suppliers of Chitosan.
Exporters of Chitosan Can see the exporters of Chitosan.
Chitosan Suppliers  Can see the Suppliers of Chitosan.
Selling Leads of Chitosan Can see the Selling Leads of Chitosan.
Carboxymethyl Chitosan Manufacturers Can see the Carboxymethyl Chitosan Manufacturers.
China Suppliers Can see the China Suppliers of Chitosan.
Chitosan Manufacturers Can see the manufacturers of Chitosan.
Companies/Manufacturers Can see the Companies/Manufacturers of Chitosan.
Trading Companies Can see the Trading Companies of Chitosan.
Bestchitosan.com We are exporters and bulk suppliers of Industrial grade Chitosan and Pharmaceutical grade Chitosan from India. Our standard Chitosan derivatives meet the standard set by the respective Industries requirement. Chitosan is being extracted and screened for their quality employing physico-chemical testing methods.
SSSBiotic We Biosourcing.com, are young, vibrant and hungry for growth, in the field of Ayurveda and herbal supplements. We have been working for last 3 Years to achieve the status of WHO certified 100% organic herbs and spices, suppliers, manufactures and exporters.
Chitosan Buyers List Can see the Chitosan Buyers List.
Guidelines
Guide for Process Water Management  at Fish Processing Plants Guide for the best management practices for process water management at fish processing plants in British Columbia.
Frequently Asked Questions about Chitosan Can see Frequently Asked Questions about Chitosan.
Chitosan Guides Chitosan has been around for ages. It is now marketed as weight loss product as this special fiber has been shown to bind fat in the intestine, blocking its absorption by the body.
Vitamins & health supplements guide Chitosan supplements are marketed as `fat blockers' or `fat trappers'. It is claimed that Chitosan blocks the absorption of as much as 120 g of dietary fat per day, and this will promote weight loss. Besides from the obvious effect that fat is not absorbed into the body with the presence of Chitosan, it goes a lot deeper in benefiting weight loss.
Weight Management Guide Frequently asked questions about weight management.