- Alum, in chemistry, is a term given to the crystallized double sulfates of the typical formula M2SO4·MIII2(SO4)3·24H2O, where M is the sign
of an alkali metal (potassium, sodium, rubidium, caesium), silver or ammonium), and MIII denotes one of the trivalent metals
(Aluminium, chromium, or ferric iron).
- They are soluble in water, have an astringent, acid, and sweetish taste, react acid to litmus, and crystallize in regular octahedra. When
heated they liquefy; and if the heating be continued, the water of crystallization is driven off, the salt froths and swells, and at last
an amorphous powder remains.
- Alum (Aluminium Sulphate) is manufactured by the reaction of Alumina Hydrate and Bauxite with Sulphuric
acid. Bauxite is ground in the pulveriser to 90% passing through 200 mesh and elevated to Batch Hopper through Bucket Elevator. Measured quantity of water is to be
taken into the Lead bonded reactor and slowly concentrated Sulphuric acid is to be added in the reactor. After getting the required
temperature in the reactor, slowly the ground bauxite is added . After the addition of measured quantity of Bauxite/Alumina Hydrate, the
Agitator is kept on for about 45 minutes then the solution is dumped into the settling tank.
- The decanted solution of Aluminium Sulphate for the mixed process is then again taken to the Reactor and the required quantity of Sulphuric
Acid is slowly added and after getting the temperature. The required quantity (as per the degree of solution) of Hydrated Alumina is slowly
added keeping agitator rotating. After the addition of total quantity the Alum is moulded in the trays with the help of tray filling
arrangement. The slabs after cooling are to be taken out from the trays and stacked in the store.
- Most of the alum produced today is used in the pulp & paper industry as well as water and wastewater treatment. It is inexpensive and
effective for a broad range of treatment problems because it can function as a coagulant, flocculant, recipitant and emulsion breaker. As a
coagulant and flocculant, alum removes turbidity, suspended solids and colloidal color, reduces biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and
clarifies potable, process and wastewater.
- The main uses of alum are: Water treatment: used as a coagulant to remove suspended solids and or some metals (eg Cr, Ba, Cu) from water
(either drinking water or in waste treatment facilities). Paper sizing: used as a rosin sizing control in paper production, affects the drainage of liquor from the paper.
- Kemiron Companies Inc. ranks as the USA’s largest producer and marketer of a complete product range of iron and aluminium coagulants.
The company has fourteen strategically located manufacturing and distribution sites. The primary production units are located in Bartow
(Florida), Mojave (California), Fontana (California), St. Louis (Missouri), Rowley (Utah), Houston (Texas), Gastonia (North Carolina),
Savannah (Georgia) and Spokane (Washington).
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