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  • A silvery white actinide metal with symbol Cf having atomic number 98 and also possess a radioactive characteristics.

  • Californium was named after it was discovered in California.

  • It does not occur naturally and therefore ten isotopes are available which are radioactive.

  • Californium is produced in nuclear reactors and particle accelerators.

  • Large quantities of Californium can be synthesized by irradiating plutonium or its transmutation products with neutrons in a nuclear reactor.

  • Californium is an efficient neutron source. It is used in neutron moisture gauges and as a portable neutron source for metal detection.

  • A strong neutron emitter by spontaneous fission; one microgram emits 170 million neutrons per minute.

  • Californium useful as a neutron startup source for some nuclear reactors and as a portable neutron source for neutron activation analysis.

  • Large masses of 252Cf are used for neutron radiography of weapons components and in explosive detection systems.

  • Californium-252 is used commercially as a reliable, cost-effective neutron source for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) of coal, cement, and minerals.

  • Californium-252 radio isotopic neutron source capsules have been used for Brachytherapy treatment of radio resistant tumors.

  • Californium-252 is conveniently packaged into small sealed source capsules with a wide range of intensities.

  • One of the portable neutron source for discovery of metals such as gold & silver.

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